In the Lombard period the terms "sculka" and "sculcula" appear in the Edict of Rotari of 643 and subsequently in the legislation of the Longobard King Rachis dated between the 744 and the 749. The homophones toponyms are found in the territories of Sgurgola, Celano, Cugnoli, at the mouth of the river Vomano and in Tirino Valley.
Important commercial and cultural center of the Marsica, is situated at the foot of Monte San Nicola. From the high part of town you dominate the plans Palentini, the scene of the battle of Tagliacozzo. In some periods of the prehistoric and in subsequent periods of full, plans Palentini and the Fucino formed a single lake. The first traces of a settlement in the territory scurcolano date back to the Bronze Age and later Iron Age. In the period preromano the area was populated by people fair in perennial conflict with neighboring the Marsi whose territory stretched around lake of Fucino, not far from Scurcola. The scarcity of resources and the presence of a fertile plain (Plans Palentini) were the basis for these contrasts. In the moment in which Rome emerged between the city-state in Latin, to ascend the mentor role of italic people, you scontrò even with the Fair that assoggettò in several military campaigns; in fair territory on the border of what marso, realized the colony of Alba Fucens, while the territory scurcolano was inserted in the Ager publicus aequicolanus, from which Cicolano relative to the Valle del Salto. On the occasion the territory Scurcola was inserted in the Centuriazione albense made as a result of the creation of the Latin colony of Alba Fucens.
During the social war Rome fought with its former allies italics from 89 to 91 b.C., while the italics were already subject in 304 BC at the end of the Second Samnite War and the Marsi, in 294 b.c. after the rebellion against the institution of the Latin colony of Carseoli. The coveted citizenship was reached after the social war, it began the process of Romanization of the people. Alba Fucens not participated in the "Italic League" and then underwent the destruction at the hands of the marse troops which have arisen (the siege and destruction of Alba Fucens). During the imperial era, and especially in the late Roman Empire, there was a proliferation of villas in the countryside, as a consequence of the abandonment of the Urbe from part of the privileged classes. With the end of the Roman Empire of the West the area was first subject to the struggles between the Goths and the Byzantines and then subject to the Longobards inside of the Duchy of Spoleto, then passed to the Holy Roman Empire of Charlemagne. Date back to this period the certain traces of a village on the Monte S. Nicola; it was almost probably a guard post above the Via Valeria, made in roman times and still viable.
In the XI century the territorial area of Scurcola was annexd to the Kingdom of Sicily Under the Norman dominion. From this period dates the first castle Scurcola, a tower (perhaps of ancient times) surrounded by a circle of walls and subsequently incorporated in a castle of pentagonal shape. When the Southern Italy became a possession of the Swabian dynasty the region experienced a period of stability and economic growth; the village close to the small fortress it grew and developed the agricultural activities and crafts. In 1268, the area became the scene of the Battle of Tagliacozzo, final clash between the Swabians and Angevins for the conquest of the South.
The history of Scurcola remained tied to the fate of the Marsica up to the XVI century, when in the region began to be inserted the Orsini family of Rome, which had as its aim is to extend the properties from the Papal State to that of the Kingdom of Naples. This is the period in which the old castle was incorporated in the New Rocca, built according to the new constructive canons, to better withstand the sieges made also with the use of the first firearms. With the arrival of the Orsini soon came also the penetration of the other important Roman family, the column, which came soon in conflict with that. Most times the Fortress passed from family to family to stay finally firmly to the column until the nineteenth century. In the meantime the situation of the abbey worsened: the contrasts between the powerful of the place, famines and plagues determined the ruin of what was considered by all the greatest example of Cistercian Gothic French d'Italia.
At the end of the XVI century and the beginning of the XVII century in the country were made a series of major works: the church of the SS. The Trinity, in the style of the Counter-Reformation, richly decorated in the course of the centuries and recently restored, with its splendid Baroque staircase, the church of S. Antonio da Padova is part of the former convent of the contractors, with baroque interior and the new church of Maria SS. of Victory, lying close to the Rocca, above the village. Between the XVII and the XVIII century the life of the small community scurcolana agropastoral was marked only by hard work and famine which imperversarono often in the region also because of the passage of numerous armies.
In the nineteenth century Scurcola occurred serious episodes linked to the movements to which followed the Unity of Italy, in particular the massacre perpetrated by soldiers of the Piedmontese army that fucilarono soldiers of Bourbon troups. Many marsicani aggregarono you to the formations of the brigands, adhering in particular to the band Mancini (a belonging to this band was Ciavarella Luigi Scurcola Marsicana that was shot at Luco dei Marsi on 6 April 1862) and to the band of Luigi Alonzi said Chiavone.
Certainly deserves a visit to the Rocca Orsini, the undisputed protagonist of the panorama of the village.
The battle of Tagliacozzo, was fought on 23 August 1268 between Ghibellines supporters of Corradino of Swabia and the Angevin troops of Charles I of Anjou, Guelphs.
The battle of Tagliacozzo represents the last act of the Swabian power in Italy. The end of Corradino marks in fact the definitive fall of the Hohenstaufens from imperial throne and from that of Sicily, opening in the United Sicilian, the new chapter of the Angevin domination.
Charles I of Anjou, brother of Louis IX of France and the first count of Anjou, was invested in the Kingdom of Sicily by Pope Clement IV, while Corradino had been called by the Ghibellines to claim the throne of Sicily after the death of his Father Conrad of Swabia, in turn son of Frederick II of Swabia and great grandson of Federico Barbarossa, and the subsequent (1266) defeat and death in Benevento uncle Manfredi, although somehow had usurped the kingdom.
Corradino is directed toward the faithful Lucera that from 2 February 1268, was under siege by the troops of Charles I, which, for want of the Holy See had organised a crusade to eradicate the last Islamic stronghold of southern Italy. Left the siege, Carlo went to Corradino and the battle took place at the Plans Palentini, between Scurcola Marsicana and Albe; however took the name of the locality of Tagliacozzo, that was the most important town in the vicinity of the place of the Clash. These forces in the field: about 9000 Imperial Corradino; about 6000 soldiers to Charles of Anjou.
The army of Corradino, consisting of German soldiers, Pisani, Romans, Spanish and Arabic, was divided into three armies: the 1ª orders of Frederick I of Baden-Baden and the same Corradino, the 2ª guided by Galvano de lance and the 3ª by Enrico de launches. The the Angevin troops were driven by Charles of Anjou, the adviser Erardo (or Alardo) of Valéry and by William Banner.
The battle had physically place at a masonry bridge site on the river Imele (stretch abruzzese near the River Jump) or, according to other historians, in the vicinity of the stream Riale at Castrum Pontis. The soldiers led by svevo, numerically superior, accerchiarono first troops angioine, but at the time of etching committed the error of not adequately assess the entity and the positions of all the enemy forces.
Corradino was defeated after an apparent initial victory because of a stratagem devised by Alardo Valéry, which took inspiration in turn by a similar expedient used by the Saracens in the Crusades: the noble Henry de Cousances, aide-de-camp of King, wore the garments of Carlo and launched in battle with all the Angevin vanguard preceded by the Crown Jewels. The men of Corradino fell in ground against this array, sbaragliandola. After the fall of the Cousances, the Ghibellines had the illusion of having killed the hated french and have in hand the victory. Broke so their formations, letting go to great scenes of jubilation, spearhead untidily in pursuit of franco-Angevins in apparent route, dedicating themselves also to the plundering of the enemy camp. This gave to Charles of Anjou the opportunity to launch a new surprise attack, thanks to 800 Knights held in reserve, which he had not used in the first phase of the battle and kept behind a ground depression.
The deployment ghibellino, taken by surprise and behind not interest to the charge of the angevin cavalry, was overwhelmed and dispersed. For the troops of svevo was a defeat that assumed in short the proportions of a real massacre. Corradino you gave then to escape, heading toward Rome. The city that shortly before he had triumphantly welcomed, proved now hostile to the defeated.
Moreover, the wrath of Carlo toward the Romans considered traitors to the support previously given to Staufen, was terrible, as shockingly experimented with the Roman citizens made prisoners to Scurcola. In fact they were cruelly massacred with inhuman tortures. Perhaps the beautiful statue of Arnolfo di Cambio, depicting Charles of Anjou on the throne with an expression located, had to also have the function of warning to the Roman people on the price of infidelity. All of these previous events certainly not favored in that moment the solidarity of the Romans toward the fugitive Corradino. The young prince and its decided that it would be more prudent to leave Rome to head toward lidi safe. Reached with his companions Torre Astura, localities of the coast of Lazio near Nettuno, Corradino tried to take to the sea, probably directed toward the faithful Pisa.
Instead was betrayed by John Frangipane, lord of those places that made him deliver to Charles of Anjou. Briefly tried and sentenced to death, was beheaded in Moricino Field, the current market square of Naples, 29 October 1268; Frederick I of Baden-Baden shared the same fate. The victory franco-Angevin marked the destiny of the Saracena Lucera that was taken by starvation on 27 August 1269 and of the Italian peninsula, torn in fact the Swabians Angevins, whose domain should also undergo a blow in 1282 with the revolt of the Sicilian Vespers.
The battle is mentioned by Dante Alighieri in the Hell (XXVIII, 17-18) and the emphasis is placed on the victory for the Council of "Alardo sanz arms", which is an index of the anti-Angevin of poet, moreover expressed elsewhere and justified by the fact that the Poet, in his life, had one of its larger rivals in Charles of Valois, cousin of Charles I of Anjou.
Village of Scurcola Marsicana
Municipality of Scurcola Marsicana
Province of L'Aquila
Altitude centre: 700 m s.l.m.
the Municipality is part of:
Borghi autentici d'Italia
Municipality of Scurcola Marsicana
Via Cavalieri di Vittorio Veneto - Scurcola Marsicana (AQ)
Tel. +39 0863 562326
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