The Doria Castle is inserted in the historic village of the village of Dolceacqua, overlying the inhabited area and situated in a dominant position. The first mention of the castle and the village of Dolceacqua, called at the time Dulzana, dates back to 1177 in an ancient document in which abuts the property of the counts of Ventimiglia. Will be in 1270, almost a hundred years later, the feud and its manor house will be purchased by Oberto Doria - the latter founder of the famous dynasty that will dominate Genoa and its Republic - which will expand its territories in the Nervia Valley up to the villages of Apricale, Perinaldo and Isolabona.
The castle will be in the XIV century in the center of fights between the factions of the Guelphs and the Ghibellines and the Doria family, exponent ghibellina, will therefore have to undergo two heavy sieges in 1319 and in 1329; the sieges were ordered by King Robert of Anjou, Count of Provence and the Guelfa, who succeeded in his aim of conquest forcing the Doria to submit to his will. The lords of the family will become therefore the vassals of the latter and afterwards of the Republic of Genoa. In 1744 the castle was once again the scene of clashes and furious battles because of its strategic position deemed important for the possible obstacle that could create to the French army and Spanish. The two armies, Allies, succeeded after violent struggles to conquer the fortress on 27 July 1745.
Originally the structure was composed in the XII century by a circular tower - still existing at the center of the complex - and by a smaller building where he lived the office of guard. The castle was enlarged in the XVI century by the then lord local Stefano Doria, to which he added to the previous structure a bastion rammed in the eastern sector and the two square towers are identical. Today the structure appears as divided into two blocks, the front part was in fact intended to control and safety of the village as well as local service, prisons and warehouses; the rear, connected with the front body through a large courtyard, was instead where they were located the environments of the representation and reception of guests and where did the local lords.